The present constitution of the RSFSR was ratified by the Extraordinary Seventeenth All-Russian Congress of Soviets on Jan. A sovereign soviet socialist state, the RSFSR is one of the 15 Union republics that voluntarily united with other soviet republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The tribal-clan aristocracy became the owners of the land and natural resources. There was deeper study of the transition from feudalism to capitalism, the development of capitalist industry and the formation of the working class, agrarian history, imperialism, and the development of the conditions necessary for socialist revolution in Russia. Although Lenin thought highly of the antiserf-dom orientation of the revolutionary democrats’ economic ideas, he noted that the revolutionary democrats’ views on socialism and the transition to socialism were utopian. Lenin’s teachings on the possibility, paths, and methods of building socialism in the USSR and the economic problems of the transition period were developed in the documents of the Communist Party and in the works of the economists of the RSFSR. Pokrovskii, and Shershenevich helped create an extensive literature on civil and commercial law. A scientifically grounded judicial system was created that provided for the participation of the working people in the administration of justice, and special bodies were formed to supervise the observance of legality by all organizations and citizens.
Outside the spheres listed in article 73 of the Constitution of the USSR, the RSFSR exercises authority on its territory independently, fully keeping its sovereign rights. The aristocracy of the druzhiny (see), which formed in the period of military democracy and was headed by the chieftain-princes, gradually shifted from campaigns aimed at capturing booty and prisoners to the conquest of arable land. The history of the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 was studied exhaustively. The most outstanding theoretician among the revolutionary democrats was Chernyshevskii. The documents of the Communist Party creatively developed Lenin’s teachings on imperialism, state-monopoly capitalism, and the general crisis of capitalism. Best known among the works written on criminal law were those by N. During the 1920’s, law codes were adopted in all branches of the law.
Each autonomous republic of the RSFSR is represented by 11 deputies, each autonomous oblast by five deputies, and each autonomous okrug by one deputy. Prince Andrei Bogoliubskii, who ruled Vladimir-Suzdal’ from 1157 to 1174, made the city of Vladimir on the Kliaz’ma River his capital; the city became the center of the grand principality. Economic research in the RSFSR is centered at numerous institutes of nationwide significance. Dobroliu-bov, who sharply criticized the existing state and law and called for the overthrow of the autocracy and the establishment of a democracy.
The highest body of state power and the sole law-making body of the RSFSR is the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, which is elected every five years on the basis of one deputy per 150,000 inhabitants. The strengthening of the prince’s power was stubbornly opposed by the feudal aristocracy, that is, by the boyars. The major institutes are the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (founded in 1936), the Institute of the World Economy and International Relations of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1956), and the Scientific Research Institute of Economics of the State Planning Committee of the USSR (1955).. Their revolutionary views aided the growth of political consciousness among the advanced strata of Russian society.
Each autonomous republic is represented in the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR by one of the deputy chairmen of the Presidium. The spread of feudal relations was accompanied by the exacerbation of the class struggle; for example, there were uprisings in Kiev in 1068–, and movements of the smerdy arose in the Rostov-Suzdal’ Land and Beloozero in 10. Essays have been published on the history of the party organizations of the autonomous republics and many oblasts. Pososhkov considered it expedient to aid Russian merchants in their trade with foreigners and to export from Russia not raw materials but rather finished goods. Economists of the Russian Federation did a great deal of work on the distribution of productive forces throughout the country’s economic regions, the overall development of productive forces, the planning of the national economy, agrarian theory, and the economics of agriculture. The powers of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR are defined by the constitution of the RSFSR. There the boyar aristocracy succeeded in limiting the prince’s power; the office of prince was made elective, like that of the head of the Novgorod church, the archbishop, who played an important role in the government of Novgorod. A systematized, detailed treatment of the most important institutions of criminal and civil law was given in the code known as the Russkaia Pravda. Goriushkin, another student of Des-nitskii’s, published the extensive Guide to the Knowledge of the Russian Legal Art in four volumes. The development of legal science was greatly influenced by A. Radishchev, who authored a number of specialized legal works, including On the Statute, An Essay on Legislation, and A Draft for the Division of the Russian Code. Speranskii exerted a perceptible influence on the development of Russian jurisprudence. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were a number of trends in the theory of law. The Presidium calls sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, issues decrees, grants honorary titles of the RSFSR, and so on. The veche (popular assembly) enabled the population of Novgorod to exercise some influence on the course of political events. Problems of legal science were also taken up in a number of literary works dating from this period, such as Ilarion’s Discourse on Law and Grace (11th century) and the Primary Chronicle (early 12th century). Peter organized courses for the study of jurisprudence under the auspices of the collegia. Ar-tem’ev published A Short Outline of Roman and Russian Law, Showing the Content of Both, Together With Their Histories. A significant contribution to the development of legal thought was made by the Decembrists, especially P. Pestel’, who drafted the first republican constitution for Russia, called Russkaia Pravda. In the first period of his activity, he criticized the social and state system of Russia in a number of memorandums and demanded the promulgation of “fundamental laws.” Speranskii organized work to compile The Collected Laws of the Russian Empire and The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. was held by the tribes of the middle Dnieper region, who had a highly developed farming culture. The decisions of the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU (1956) and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of June 30, 1956, On Overcoming the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences exerted a positive influence on the development of historical scholarship. He further developed the idea advanced by Marx and Engels that backward countries could attain socialism without passing through the capitalist stage of development if aided by proletarians of other countries who had won power. The works of Marx, Engels and Lenin contained a genuinely scientific and materialist conception of the state and law, thus making possible the formation of a new legal science, radically different from the bourgeois science of the state and bourgeois legal science. Biographical dictionaries of writers appeared, such as N. Novikov’s Attempt at a Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers (1772). (Explanatory text to a geobotanical map of the USSR with a scale of 1:4,000,000.) Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. During the Great Migration of Peoples of the third century . New areas of study included popular democratic revolutions, the development of people’s democracies, and the emergence of the world socialist system. In essence, the economic bases of the dvorianstvo were defended both by Slavophiles, such as A. He developed basic Marxist theses on the economy of communism and the paths of the economy’s construction. By the time of the October Revolution of 1917, Marxist-Leninist theory had provided a principled resolution of the main problems of the state and law. Prokopovich and others), and examples of “auxiliary” genres, including bibliographic inventories and lists of books. The RSFSR includes 16 autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, and ten autonomous okrugs. Reki i ozera Sovetskogo Soiuza (spravochnye dannye). By repelling the attacks of the nomadic Pechenegs and Polovtsy, Kievan Rus’ became the most important state in Eastern Europe. 1–2), and the History of Siberia From Earliest Times to the Present (vols. Even in the first documents of Kievan Rus’, economic ideas bore a class character. A brilliant representative of the ideology opposing serfdom was A. Radishchev, who raised the question of abolishing serfdom. Mordvinov, and others, who proposed a number of reforms in industry, finance, and tariff policy but without fundamental changes in the relations of serfdom; and the revolutionary current of the Decembrists. Turgenev wrote An Essay on the Theory of Taxes (1818), and M. Paramount importance was ascribed to raising the effectiveness of social production and the standard of living of the working people. A significant contribution to legal science was made by M. Kovalevskii, who studied the origin of the commune by drawing on a great deal of ethnologic material; his works were received positively by En-gels.